The World of Urban Transport; a Picture Kaleidoscope – From the Once-Upon-a-Time Bullock-Sulky to the modern Low-Speed Urban and Regional Maglev Transit By F.A. Wingler, January 2021

The Journey of the Transit Kaleidoscope begins in India with a once–upon-a-time privileged Bullock-Sulky personal Transport and ends in Germany and China with the Max Bögl Low-Speed Maglev for Urban Transport.


Flash-Butt welded Long Rolled Rails, LRR, of Prime Steel Quality help to lower the Risk of fatal Train Accidents in India By F.A.Wingler, January 2021

Long Rolled Rails, LRR, of prime steel quality, already tested in the manufacturing plant, and with Flash-Butt Welds of higher strength than that of Alumino Thermic, AT, welds, provide far better alignment and continuity parameters with less alignment perturbations for far smoother train runs with less dynamic response of rail vehicles, that lower the risk of in-service rail failures, which had led in past decades to nasty, unwanted and fatal train derailment accidents in India. The mutual impacts of rail and running wheel governed by Newton`s Laws of Motion ( = dynamic response) are on tracks consisting of  flash-butt welded long rolled rail panels far lower than on tracks consisting of AT welded short 13 m rails.

The recent Indian evolution of indigenous manufacture of Flash-Butt Welded Long Rolled Rails of prime Steel Quality is a MAJOR ACHIEVEMENT for INR of the last decade on the way to avoid nasty, unwanted and fatal train accidents and to extend the service life of rails in track and that of the other track components resulting in lower overall Life Cycle Costs.

Long rolled and flash-butt welded rails are a prerequisite for 160 kmph Semi-High Speed Lines in India.

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Demand for Attendance-free “fit-and-forget” Rail-Fastening on envisaged Indian Railway`s “Semi High-Speed” Routes – Pandrol Fast-Clip an advisable Solution

Indian Railways is fastening the Rails on Concrete Sleepers over its entire network with the so-called MARK III Elastic Rail Clip (ERC), which had been evolved with a modified spatial bend by RDSO from the left-handed Pandrol 401 Series with an anti-clockwise bend of the rod.

The MARK III ERC is far away from being “fit-and-forget”. Each and everywhere on the IR network one can detect loose or fallen off ERCs. Regular controlling by a patrolling key-man is needed to push back loose or fallen off Elastic Rail Clips into the tunnel of the shoulder plate/housing.

To increase the Speed of Passenger-Trains to 160 kmph on existing Routes is a long-term corporate objective in India based on policy initiative. The risk of patrolling key-men on duty increases over-linear with the train-speed. Rails on tracks envisaged for 160 kmph “Semi High-Speed” routes demand a “fit-and-forget” attendance-free Fastening System without the regular need of a patrolling key-man pushing back loose or fallen off Elastic Rail Clips (ERC).

Worldwide the Pandrol Fast-Clips are increasingly superseding the right-handed Pandrol Brand e-Clips resp. left-handed 400 Series Clips. This Fast-Clip takes a trumped around the globe especially in England, Germany, France, Poland, Sweden, Estonia, Georgia, Lithuania, Russia, Serbia, Hungary, Corsica, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Malaysia, Saudis, Australia, China and USA.

With Fast-Clips no patrolling key-man will be needed. This ERC is an advisable solution when it comes to a track renewal or upgrade for envisaged “Semi High-Speed” routes.


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This technical paper is a revision of the Chapter 8 Draft of J.S. Mundrey for the forthcoming 5 th edition RAILWAY TRACK ENGINEERING with modifications and amendments by Dr. F.A. Wingler.

A Railway Track needs to be addressed in its entirety rather by only its individual constituents.

The technical paper deals in Part I with the Load Transfer in Track, with Ballast, Sub- Ballast Blanket Layer, Formation, Substructure and Drainage and delineates and  illustrates in Part II Track-, Hill &  Cutting Slope-Drainage- Systems.

Cuttings are injury to the nature and disturb the natural water-flow. And if not appropriately protected and secured, nature will take revenge with Hill-, Mud- or Rock-Slides. This can cause nasty railway accidents.

Ballast is the “Blood of the Rail Track” and Water is the “Enemy of the Rail Track”. Without a stable, well bearing and well drained Sub-Ballast, Formation, Sub-Grade and Sub-Soil  there will be no stable Rail Track.

Initial High Quality of all interactive Track-Constituents in their entirety result in low Deterioration Rates under given traffic load, and hence initial High Track Quality cuts overall Life Cycle Costs. Quality is no Luxury. Capital Investment in High Quality pays off over the Life Cycle.

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RISK & HUMAN ERROR MANAGEMENT – The Nature of Latent unsafe Conditions and the Nature of Human Error A Guide to the Ultimate Goal to prevent Railway Accidents

Around the Globe technical Organisations with a high Risk Potential in Space Technology, Aviation, Nuclear Power Generation, Oil Exploration, Land and Maritime Transportation, Railways or Chemical Production have made in recent years remarkable improvements in their Safety Records by using the Doctrines and Methodologies developed by James Reason, UK.

The following treatises had been elaborated to help Sri Lanka Railways to find a path to more Safe Train Operation and to more Professionalism in Risk & Human Error Management and Accident Investigations.

Understanding the Human Factors and the Human Error producing Conditions is essential.
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Risk & Human Error Management

Normal Speed, Higher-Speed, Semi-High Speed and High-Speed in India

The question is if it will be prudent to invest capital in new dedicated HIGH-SPEED LINES for 200-300 kmph, which have to be built in Standard 1.435 m Gauge and not in Indian Broad Gauge, since worldwide no specific High Speed Train Technology had yet been developed for the Indian or Iberian Broad Gauge,

this is why Japan had to go for the new dedicated High-Speed Lines from Meter Gauge to Standard Gauge, and Spain had to go from their Iberian 1.677 m Broad Gauge to dedicated Standard Gauge High Speed tracks

or if it will be more advisable to use the conventional infrastructure by investing in special prepared conventional ballasted up speed-ed Broad Gauge Tracks for “SEMI-HIGH SPEED” up to max. 200 kmph, parallel to existing alignments, which could also be used by 110 kmph conventional coach trains.

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