Swiss SBB and Pandrol Procedures

By F.A. Wingler, April 2022

Booted Rail-Support Block technology for Non-Ballasted Tracks (NBT) is of interest in India for the new Katra-Banihal Line of the USBRL Project. The demand has been for a system with straight and as well curved Non-Ballasted Track (NBT), which allows adjusting, repairing and retrofitting of tracks. The NBT technology with rubber booted single rail support blocks fulfils those demands. Swiss Federal Railway, SBB, and as well Pandrol have developed procedures to retrofit booted block NBT with concrete blocks. Swiss SBB has given its heavy used Zurich Airport Line a second life with its procedure. For retrofitting the Barcelona, Spain, Metro, Line 5, the Pandrol procedure has been used. Both procedures are described in the following PDF paper, which can be free downloaded:NEW LIFE FOR BÖTZBER-STEDEF, LVT, SONNEVILLE NBT

Road embedded Rail Tracks for City Tram, Light Rail Transit and Metro-Lite

The origin for LIGHT RAIL TRANSIT or “METRO-LITE” is based on electric City Trams,

that started worldwide at the end of the last but one century. Light Rail Transit is becoming a further mainstay for urban and suburban public transport in India under the term “METRO-LITE” . In India, we find a City Tram relic of the last century in Kolkata:

LIGHT RAIL TRANSITS, LRT, including City Trams, experience worldwide a renaissance. LRT is currently the fastest-growing passenger rail mode, employing a full range of technologies and operational practices. Around the globe, light rail systems, or LRT, have become increasingly popular in recent years due to their lower capital costs and increased reliability compared with heavy rail systems.

In Central European countries, LRT/city trams remained operating since hundred years uninterrupted as the backbone for urban, suburban interurban and regional public transport.

Be it the tram in the classical sense or the suburban and interurban railways, which combine features of underground railways and trams, the global future of urban transport is on the rail with Light Rail Transits. While the construction and running of underground or elevated systems incur huge costs, tram and light rail transit systems can be constructed and integrated into the city-scape at a comparatively lower cost.

The Light Rail Systems can share their ways with road traffic, blending in the surrounding road surface, and as well use their own dedicated tracks on reserved corridors.

The conventional way of track laying had been to lay the rail grids with gauge distance bars bolted to the web without support of cross-ties (sleepers) direct on a aligned and resilient planum, consisting of compacted gravel, metal, bitumen, asphalt, cement, mortar or concrete, or nowadays on elastic noise and vibration attenuation mats. Normally, height adjustment of such tracks takes place by insertion of wedges, and by pouring compounds under the track panel.

In modern ground borne noise vibration mitigating and electric stray current insulating systems the polymer encapsulated rails are laid in prefabricated concrete grooves. In some towns the rails are fixed on sleepers embedded in ballast-less track structures.

To learn more, download PDF:Road embedded Rail Tracks for City Tram, Light Rail Transit and Metro-Lite

Ribbed Base-Plate Rail Fastenings in Pictures By F.A. Wingler, March 2001

The bearing ribbed base-plate for rail fastenings had been designed in Germany by the engineer Döhlert and introduced on German Railway in 1926. It is the most successful base-plate for indirect rail fastenings on wooden-, steel-, concrete-, composite-, polymer sleepers and ballast-less slab tracks around the globe. The KPO fastening from 1926 on wooden sleepers superseded the direct and indirect dog-, cut- and screw-spike fastenings and had become the conventional rail-fastening in most Central and East European countries, in Central Asia and as well in Turkey for wooden sleepers. Together with an epsilon shaped elastic tension clamp, SKl (“Spann Klemme”, patented 1967 by the German Engineer Professor Hermann Meier at the TU Munich and manufactured for the world market by Vossloh, Germany) it entered also India as a standard elastic fastening for Metro Rail on concrete plinth tracks and for modern turnouts.

Indirect elastic SKl Rail Fastening of Bangalore Metro with canted Ribbed Base-Plate on Plinth Track; System Vossloh

To learn more, download the PDF: RIBBED BASE PLATE RAIL FASTENINGS 20. 03. 21

Advanced Rail Fastenings in India By Dr. F. A. Wingler, February 2021

With advanced Turnouts, Metro Rail, Ballast-less Rail Tracks, Regional Rapid Transits and High-Speed Line new impetus has been given to the Indian rail fasting market and applications. The spectrum of advanced rail fastening assemblies has become wider.

The promotion of indigenous manufacture of advanced rail fastening components under “Make in India” will give an impetus to the Aatmanirbhar Bharat Initiative under the self reliant Indian campaign making better use of the domestic economy and industries.

To know more about advanced Rail Fastenings download the PDF:Advanced Rail Fastenings 2

Characterisation of self-tensioning elastic Rail Clips, ERC, of PANDROL Type By F. A. Wingler, February 2021

Rail Fastening on concrete sleepers with the RDSO designed MARK III Elastic Rail Clip, ERC, has become standard in India.

The self-tensioning or self-stressing elastic Pandrol-type rail clips are manufactured by giving a spatial bend to Silicon-Manganese alloy spring-steel rods. Their advantage is the simple installation parallel to the rail. The ERCs are pushed with their leg from right to left parallel to the rail into the tunnel/housing of the shoulder plate/insert with the help of a standard hammer or a puller device. When inserted the clip deflects and develops a clamping force fixing the rail foot:

The rod-end structural element, which is pushed into the tunnel/housing of the shoulder plate, is called “CENTRE LEG”. The other structural rod-end element is called “TOE”. The “HEEL” is the middle structural element between the “FRONT ARCH” and the “REAR ARCH”.

The rail clip panted in 1957 was invented by Per Pande-Rolfsen, an employee of the Norwegian State Railway, and the person from whom the Pandrol clip draws its name.

Worldwide there are two types of self-tensioning Pandrol Clips in use:

  1. The original PR Clip with an anti-clock-wise bended geometry, shaped as the letter “e” and
  2. The e-Series Clip with a clock-wise bended geometry, shaped as the letter “G”.

For more information download the PDF:Classification of ERC`s


Metro/Tram-Trains are Multi-Talents or Chameleons, that operate locally on the City Rail Networks and as well inter-regional or between cities on Main-Line Railway networks, bringing commuters from one City Center to the next City Center without changing the transport mode. Metro/Tram-Trains operate seamless with one-and-the-same Rail Vehicle on Lines of Metros, Subways, Street Cars, Street Trams, suburban Commuter Rail, Intercity Regional Rapid Transits and Main Line Railways. The system should be unigaue, otherwise dual-gauge or gauntlet tracks are needed. Metro/Tram-Trains  combine Urban Rail with Regional Rail Transport.

The most advanced modern Tram-Train system in the world operates currently in the Karlsruhe Region, Germany, on a rail network of 533 km, using 354 km railway lines together with the infrastructures of the German Federal Railway. Further modern Tram-Train Networks can be found in the regions of Cologne, Bonn, Saarbrücken, Stuttgart (Neckar-Alb), Chemnitz, Nordhorn in Germany, Cadiz in Spain, Mulhouse and  Nantes in France, Linz and Salzburg in Austria, Copenhagen in Denmark and Szeged in Hungary. Cases for combined Metro and Railway systems in India are the Nagpur and Dehradun-Rishikesh-Haridwar Regions.

Modern Thyristor Technology enables nowadays the seamless operation under different electric feeding systems: 650/750/1000 V DC, 15 kV, 16 2/3 Hz AC and 25 kV, 50 Hz AC.

For a combined and intermodal City-Tram/Metro and Regional Railway operation the track gauge should be the same, either both systems in Meter Gauge, Standard Gauge or Broad Gauge.

With the introduction of Metro Rail and High-Speed Rail operating on Standard Gauge, India had to leave its Unigauge Strategy with Broad-Gauge only. The history and dilemma of Indian Broad Gauge is discussed in the PDF below,  for free download COMBINED TRAM METRO TRAIN AND RAILWAY TRAINS


The author worked as a technical advisor for the Indian handbook project by the authors M.M. Agarwal, S. Chandra and K. Migliani METRO RAIL FOR URBAN MOBILITY IN INDIA (2020)., first edition, 2020,  Prabha & Co. Delhi 110092, India, ISBN: 81-906656-6-14.

To gain for this book project an overview on the World of Transport Technologies and as well on international and Indian Activities, Initiatives, Developments and Trends for URBAN MOBILITY AS A SERVICE (MaaS), in December 2019, the author launched a collection of current publications, summarized in individual METRO NEWS LETTERS. The individual METRO NEWSLETTERS have been gathered in PDF portfolios, which are free for download.

Urban, suburban and interurban public transport in megapolis area has many technical facets.

The portfolios feature global and Indian activities and initiatives as well as recent developments and technological trends for URBAN MOBILITY AS A SERVICE, including Metro Rail, Metro Monorail on Concrete Straddle Beam (ALWEG), light Monorail on Steel-Beam Guideways (INTAMIN), Commuter Rail, Regional Rapid Transit, Light Rail Vehicle and Transit, Light Metro Rail, combined Tram-Train, connection of Metro Rail with Railway, Metro Bus, Bus Rapid Transit, Metro Ropeway/Train, Suspended People Movers (SAFEGE), Rubber Tired People Movers on Guide/Roll Ways, linear Induction Motor propelled Light Metro, last Mile autonomous People Mover, automated on-Demand PodCar People Mover, low speed Maglev and Rope pulled Hovercraft People Mover, Water Metro and environment friendly Propulsion Technologies with Overhead Electricity Feeding,  Batteries, Hydrogen Fuel Cells (HydRail) and Natural Gas.

The portfolios cover publications on Connectivity – the Integration of different public transport modes into seamless urban, suburban and interurban public Transport Concepts -, on multimodal Hubs, autonomous and guided Technology, on the use of Digitalization, Internet of Things (IoT), Big Data, Building Information Modeling (BIM) and of Artificial Intelligence (AI), on modern Information Systems as well on seamless Ticket and Payment start-to-end Concepts and Technologies.

Urban Mobility spurs economic development and expansion. Urban Mobility as a Service, MaaS, is leading to a rapid change in the economy and quality of life in modern megapolis environment and is shaping Mobility in smart cities, in India and around the globe.

Samples for successful INTEGRATED MULTIMODAL URBAN MOBILITY SOLUTIONS FOR PUBLIC TRANSPORT, IT, are the integrated and multimodal public urban, suburban and interurban transport solutions in Istanbul (Turkey), Helsinki (Finland), Berlin (Germany), Stockholm (Sweden), Mexico (Mexico), Madrid (Spain), Toronto (Canada) and Portland (USA).

METRO RAIL IN INDIA, meeting the demand for Urban Mobility, is a success story for its fast paced legislation, planning, financing, construction and operation; and in the last 14 years has significantly improved URBAN MOBILITY and changed the public transportin several Indian cities.

The Kolkata Metro was for 18 years the only Underground Metro Rail in India, opening for commercial services from 1984.

Only after 18 years, Delhi was the second city to get Metro Rail. The construction started in 1998, and the first elevated section (Shahdara – Tis Hazari) on the Red Line opened on 24th December 2002, while the first underground section (Vishwa Vidyalaya – Kashmere Gate) of Yellow Line opened on 20th December 2004. Within only 15 years the network expanded to 343 km serving 250 stations. The system has a mix of underground, at-grade, and elevated stations using both broad-gauge and standard-gauge. Delhi Metro operates with 8 lines over 2,700 trips daily, starting at around 05:00 and ending at 23:30 hrs.

Delhi Metro is a Pioneer in METRO RAIL EXPANSION and a Symbol of the Progress, that India has made in the last decade.

Metro Rail and Metro Monorail run currently in 11 Indian megacities, and are proposed, approved, under planning or under construction in 22 more cities. As of March 2019, India has 639 km of operational metro lines and 496 stations. A further 500 km of lines are under construction.

For the construction of underground sections latest state-of-the-art tunnel boring machines are used, which significantly accelerates the construction.

Mumbai operates 19 km of elevated Straddle Beam Mono Rail. Kochi has a Water Metro, and for Shimla, Darjeeling, Dharamsalam, Tsomgo Lake in Tsomgo, East Sikkim and Varanasi Gondola Aerial Ropeway Metro is envisaged. In 12 tourist places shorter scenic Ropeways are already in operation. Further Ropeway locations for local public transport under evaluation include Elephanta Caves, Mumbai, Maharashtra; Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu; Langolceiraoching-Marjing Ching, and Sendra to Thanga, Chaoba Ching, Loktak in Manipur; Bermpark-Bhawani Island in Andhra Pradesh; Vasco da Gama to Dona Paula in Goa; and in Kochi. For Urban Mobility in Chandigarh, an area with less town-dweller than in the Indian mega cities, a light Monorail of Swiss INTAMIN Technology, running on a right-of-way Steel Beam Guide-Way, is in discussion. For smaller Cities in India with less ridership-demand “METROLIGHT” or “METROLITE” as a cheaper solution than Metro Rail is in discussion. Amritsar is thinking to install an autonomous on-Demand PodCar People Mover between Railway Station and the Golden Temple.

Bus Rapid Transits (BRT) have gained popularity worldwide as a cost-effective alternative to far more expensive urban rail investments. High-quality bus-based systems also better serve the low-density settlement patterns of many suburban markets and small-to-medium size cities due to the inherent flexibility advantages of rubber-tyre systems – the same vehicle that provides speedy line-haul services on a dedicated bus-lane or reserved bus-way can morph into a feeder vehicle, collecting and distributing customers on local streets. Electric Hybrid Buses with mixed electric catenary feeding and Hydrogen Fuel Cells electricity generation combined with short time super-capacitor storage technology will become the Next Generation Urban Transport People Movers.

LIGHT RAIL TRANSITS (LRT) with LIGHT RAIL VEHICLES (LRV) are worldwide on the agenda technologies for urban and suburban public transport. LRT is a relatively affordable way to bring rail transit to many cities around the globe – also in India – filling the niche between Metro Rail and Bus Rapid Transit

The Future of URBAN MOBILITY as a SERVICE (MaaS)  has already started in India with integrated and multimodal Transport (IT) Technologies linked through multimodal Hubs and shaped by Digitalization, Internet of Things (IoT), Artificial Intelligence (IT), Big Data and  Building Information Modelling (BIM).


To learn more, download the series of PDF files.

METRO – 10 


The Challenge in Introducing Speeds of 160 kmph for passenger trains on IR is to meet the Demands for Initial and Inherent Quality of Track, modern Infrastructure Management, modern best Practices of Permanent Work Procedures and  of mechanised Track-Maintenance.

Prerequisites for 160 kmph are:

  • Well bearing and drained formation.
  • Long rolled rails of high steel-alloy quality.
  • High performance turnouts with condition monitoring sensors.
  • High standard robotic rail flash-but welding or digital controlled AT welding under supervision of well trained and skilled gangs.
  • Under sleeper pads for concrete sleepers and a fit-and-forget replacement rail-fastening system for the current Mark III ERC fastening.
  • Well planned, condition based and predictive modern mechanised maintenance practices and procedures executed with appropriated tools and heavy duty & high performance on-track machinery.
  • Regular preventive and target rail-grinding.
  • Deployment of automatic train protection/control.



Matheran is ailing under poor road-access, poor road and trail conditions, air-pollution by stirred-up latertite-dust mixed with horse-dung and under waste-littering.

Programmes have commenced to bring betterments and to improve the road and cleanness situation. “Clean-Up Marshalls” advise now tourists not to litter the eco-sensitive zone and the beauty of the nature of Matheran.

After abolition of the brake porters on the 2 feet Narrow-Gauge Toy-Train, the introduction of the dual pipe, graduate release and indirect working compressed air-brake system in combination with the old 1903 bumpy tramway coupling system has resulted in hazardous train-set jerk and jolt movements, especially on down-gradient runs, that increase the derailment proneness. Therefore, the train-speed had to be reduced, which hampers a frequent train-service between Neral and Matheran. The Train-Drivers have to run trains, especially on down-gradient and on the poor aligned tight curves, in a snail`s pace with upmost vigilance, to avoid the risks of a derailment caused by train-set jerks. On 21th October 2018, a parcel-van of the shuttle service derailed on a turnout at Amman Lodge with a lucky narrow escape for the passengers in the adjacent coaches. Luckily the derailed parcel-van did not pull the passenger coaches from the track. Within the next 10 weeks 4 more coach derailments happened. Under modern Safety and Risk Management aspects, those unwanted bad events have to be investigated and treated as “NEAR MISSED BAD EVENTS” and therefore as “ACCIDENTS”. Lessons have to be learned.

The author suggests installing jerk- and jolt-movements free force locking railway couplers, as in use on the other Indian narrow gauge railways and on other narrow gauge heritage railways around the globe.

LUXURY is not needed; but SAFETY FOR THE PASSENGERS. This means: Luxury air-conditioned VISTA-DOM cars are not needed, but sound, healthy and well aligned rail-tracks and – in conjunction with the dual pipe compressed air brake system – force-locking state-of-the-art railway couplers.


Part I, II and III of the series on Colombo Suburban Railway Project (CSRP) and the Colombo Suburban Efficiency Improvement Project, published on, deal with the features of the Kelani-Valley (KV) Railway trace in the Colombo suburban area.

Since long the author suggests renovating this railway with Meter-Gauge and Y-shaped ThyssenKrupp Steel-Sleepers, as well to render the commuter train service with modern Light Weight Diesel Rail-Cars of Type Stadler-Bussnang, Switzerland, with middle module Diesel-electric power-pack traction instead with the heavy power-sets Class S8, S9, S19, S11 or S12.

Modern Light Weight Rail-Car Technology (see INNOTRANS 2018, 18-21. 09, Berlin, Germany) and Y-shaped Steel Sleepers make it possible to operate high capacity commuter rail-services on Meter-Gauge and as well on 760 mm (2 ½ feet) Narrow-Gauge as demonstrated by advanced railways in  North Spain, Austria, Switzerland and Germany.

Before Electrification can come on Srilankan tracks, the main problems, shortcomings, deficiencies and bottlenecks of Sri Lanka Railway have to be addressed, as there are:

  • Ailing poor ballasted rail-tracks on narrow, badly drained and yielding formation of low bearing capacity.
  • Unfavorable track layout-designs, especially in the Colombo area, with outdated designs of turnouts and crossings on tottered planks.
  • Complicated Multi-Aspect (about 60 valid aspects in use) colour light signalling without any train protection.
  • Improper and neglected repair, service and maintenance of rolling stocks.
  • Neglected and missing repair, service, maintenance, examination and certification of train-brakes systems before dispatching for a run with passengers.

To read more about applicable guidelines and solutions, download: CSRP, PART IV, PDF