This Technical paper is a revision with amendments by Dr. F.A. Wingler of the draft on Chapter 5 of J.S. Mundrey`s forthcoming 5 th edition RAILWAY TRACK ENGINEERING. The article covers direct and indirect Rail to Sleeper Fastening Systems for wooden, compound, steel and concrete sleepers as well for ballast-less slab-tracks.
Most common are indirect fastening systems with “right-handed” and “left-handed”  Pandrol-Type Elastic Rail Clips (ERC) and the Amsted RPS System, or direct or indirect systems with Vossloh-, Nabla-  and Kawa-Type Tension-Clamps fixed directly with Screws or indirectly with T-Head/K- Bolts and Nuts on Ribbed Bearing Plates.
The “fit and forget” Pandrol Fast-Clip increasingly supersedes worldwide the Pandrol Brand e- and PR 400 Series Clips. It is nowadays the favourite Clip for new installed Steel-Sleepers, and it helped them for a come-back in several European countries as well in Sri Lanka.

On concrete sleepers or on ballast-less slab-tracks, damping with elastic Pads is essential.

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