MODERN CRASH-WORTHY FRONT DESIGN-ENGINEERING FOR RAIL- CARS, POWER-SETS AND MULTIPLE UNITES IN COMPLIANCE WITH US AND EUROPEAN NORMS FOR THE PASSIVE DRIVER`S PROTECTION ON COLLISION WITH A HEAVY OBJECT
In Sri Lanka there had been two collisions of the Indian build Class S11 Diesel Multiple Unit, DMU, with the rear of stationary trains. In both events the glass-fibre/polyester- resin laminate front parts shattered into pieces leaving no survival zone for the train driver. Prior to the collisions there had been doubts about the CRASH WORTHINESS of this glass-fibre/polyester- resin laminate front construct without any sturdy crash-energy absorbing or dissipating elements or skeletons and without any anti-climber modules. But the early warnings have not been taken serious by the competent authorities. Part II of this feature article deals with international crash-norms for rail-cars, power-sets and multiple unites for the driver`s passive protection in case of a collision with a heavy object. The article informs about crash-worthy design-engineering concepts and about crash-tests and simulations.
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